Flavonoid Thiol Toxicity: What’s in a Group?


Antioxidants are a direct consequence of the highly oxidizing environment (21% atmospheric dioxygen) in which we live on the third rock from the sun. The switch from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism during the evolution of the majority of organisms on this planet not only resulted in a more efficient liberation of energy from glucose (~30 [1] vs. 2 ATP), but came at a price, since dioxygen has several alter-egos. With two unpaired electrons, dioxygen is a typical free radical, albeit that its chemistry is constrained; however, all hell breaks loose when this constraint is lifted and various highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed.

Continue reading